2. Antikythera Mechanism
Archaeologists and scuba divers discovered a shipwreck off the coast of Greece, near an island called Antikythera.
The discovery was almost 2000 years old, and while examining the wreck, they discovered a wooden box in which lay multiple layers of brass gears, all built to precision and fit together.
Half a century after the discovery, a science historian figured out that the box, now called the Antikythera mechanism, could predict the positions of planets and stars in the sky.
Since then, Greek texts have revealed that this device could even predict eclipses and moon phases!